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UVA descubre la alarma natural del cuerpo para combatir la pérdida de sangre

Científicos de la Escuela de Medicina de UVA Health han descubierto un grupo de células en el tronco encefálico que controla la respuesta del cuerpo a la pérdida severa de sangre, un hallazgo que podría beneficiar los esfuerzos para desarrollar nuevos tratamientos para las lesiones traumáticas.

El descubrimiento identifica una colección de neuronas que impulsa una respuesta que mantiene la presión arterial durante la pérdida de sangre. Sin embargo, la pérdida severa de sangre finalmente causa un colapso cardiovascular, una condición denominada “hemorragia descompensada” caracterizada por una pérdida abrupta y peligrosa de la presión arterial, y los nuevos resultados arrojan luz sobre por qué sucede eso.

Los nuevos resultados, de Stephen Abbott, PhD y colaboradores de la UVA, arrojan luz sobre un proceso importante que utiliza el cuerpo para mantener su presión arterial. Las neuronas que describen Abbott y su equipo, conocidas como “neuronas adrenérgicas C1”, controlan la presión arterial y entran en acción durante la pérdida de sangre. Cuando las neuronas detectan la pérdida de sangre, aumentan la actividad nerviosa que contrae los vasos sanguíneos y mantiene la presión arterial adecuada.

Los científicos pudieron determinar esto utilizando imágenes avanzadas y una técnica llamada optogenética que permite el control remoto de las neuronas usando luz. Su investigación reveló que las neuronas C1 son hiperactivas durante la pérdida de sangre y esto mantiene la presión arterial. Pero estas neuronas se vuelven inactivas con una pérdida severa de sangre, lo que provoca un colapso cardiovascular.

La hemorragia descompensada es el preludio del shock hemorrágico, en el que el cuerpo comienza a apagarse. Pero los científicos descubrieron que la reactivación de las neuronas C1 en ratas de laboratorio restauró tanto la presión arterial como la frecuencia cardíaca.

Los científicos señalan que puede haber varios factores que contribuyan a la disminución de la actividad de las neuronas C1 durante el inicio de la hemorragia descompensada. Se necesita más investigación en ese frente. Pero los hallazgos del equipo identifican nuevas direcciones importantes para esa investigación futura.

Los investigadores han publicado sus hallazgos en la revista científica Cell Reports. El equipo de investigación estaba formado por George MPR Souza, Ruth L. Stornetta, Daniel S. Stornetta, Patrice G. Guyenet y Stephen BG Abbott. Todos forman parte del Departamento de Farmacología de la UVA.

Más información: Sala de prensa UVA Health

73 thoughts on “UVA descubre la alarma natural del cuerpo para combatir la pérdida de sangre

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